Gardening secrets: How to propagate plants with seeds
The most common way for plants to multiply in nature is with a seed that falls to the ground to germinate or is carried away by air, water and birds. Seeds, as they are called in most fruits.
Plant propagation by seed is found in most plants, vegetables, ornamental plants, aromatic plants and fruit trees. It helps us maintain our favorite plant varieties and at the same time reduce the cost of creating plants.
The seeds are the result of the pollination of the flowers of the plants in which both the female and the male parts participate. During fertilization, some characteristics of the new plant that will emerge may differ from the plants from which the seed originated.
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Each seed contains the embryo that will germinate when found in suitable conditions of humidity, temperature and oxygen. The endosperm and the cotyledons of the seed contain the nutrients that help the fetus to develop in the early stages until it forms a root system and leaves.
Depending on the plant and the crop, there may be more efficient, easier or faster ways of propagation such as propagation by cuttings, propagation by cuttings, propagation by cuttings, as well as grafting of trees, the traditional method of propagation by propagation by . So let’s look at detailed information on collecting and storing seeds, what to look out for in seed germination, how we can help a seed germinate, as well as useful tips for making vibrant and healthy plants in the garden and in a pot.
1. How do we collect and store plant seeds?
To collect the seeds from the plants we want to multiply and store them until we plant them, we follow the following steps:
- From the plants we want to multiply, we collect the seeds of the flowers or the fruits and the fruits after they have matured or dried.
- In order to keep the seeds from germinating or rotting, they must lose their moisture. So leave the seeds on absorbent paper to dry before storing them.
- Store the seeds in glass jars, aluminum cans or special nylon bags that close airtight to avoid contact with air.
- Place some rice in the jars or cans to absorb any moisture that may be present to ensure that the seeds do not germinate.
- We note with a sticker the type and variety of the plant, the location, as well as the date we collected the seed.
- Store the seeds in a dark place, without humidity and at low temperature or in a refrigerator until we need to plant them.
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2. How long does it take for the seeds to germinate?
The germination of the seed depends on its species and variety. Some seeds germinate in a few days like rocket seed, some seeds like pepper in 1-2 weeks, while for some seeds like pine or cedar seed it takes several months for them to germinate to give new plants.
3. Why do some seeds not germinate?
Each seed needs specific soil moisture, oxygen and temperature to break the seed dormancy and germinate quickly. Many times the seeds do not germinate or delay in germination due to various reasons such as lack of moisture, excessive humidity, low temperatures and great planting depth.
4. How do we help plant seeds to germinate?
Enhancing the entry of moisture and oxygen from the seed coat to the inside so that the embryo germinates and germinates faster. Some of the techniques we use to get the seeds out of lethargy are the following:
a) Cut the seeds aside, with a sharp knife being careful not to damage the fetus.
b) Scrape the seeds with a sandpaper to reduce the thickness of the casing.
c) Heat the seeds to 70 ° C and leave them in water for 12 hours and then plant them.
d) Put the seeds in a damp cloth for 24 hours before planting.
e) Put the seeds in the freezer for 2 months and then plant them in a wet sand substrate.
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5. How do we plant the seeds to make new plants?
Propagation of plants by seeds can be done either by direct sowing in the field or by sowing in a flower – vegetable bed and as soon as it develops into a young plant then we transplant it into the soil.
To plant the seeds to create new plants, we follow the following steps:
- We plant the seeds at the right time, usually in spring and autumn, so that the temperature and humidity conditions are favorable for the germination of the seed and the growth of the plants.
- In order for them to germinate easily and for the root system of the new plants to grow, we provide fluffy soil in the garden or high quality topsoil in the pots where we plant the seeds.
- Place the seeds in the soil to a depth that corresponds to 2-3 times the diameter of the plant seed.
- We water the soil carefully avoiding excessive moisture, as there is a risk that the seeds will rot and not germinate.
- If we have planted the seeds in nursery pots, after the seeds germinate, we gradually move the pots to a place with enough lighting to ensure vibrant and healthy plants.
6. And a secret for the propagation of plants with seeds
The multiplication of the plants with the seeds (seeds) does not give plants similar to the variety of the fruit from which we took the seed and planted. This can be a problem especially for fruit trees and at some stage of development we will need to inoculate them with the desired variety.