Broad beans, secrets for planting and growing in your garden
Broad beans have been cultivated since ancient times as pulses for the production of dry seeds, but also as vegetables for the production of green pods. In the past, they were a staple food that existed in our homes almost every 2-3 days of the year. Broad beans are still a delicious food of high nutritional value that we use in various cooking recipes as they are an important source of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, and antioxidants. There are many varieties of beans to grow in our garden, both local and foreign, earlier and later, with different pod lengths and a smaller or larger number of seeds.
What conditions do the Broad beans need to grow?
Broad beans are generally tolerant of all soil types, although they thrive best in rich and fertile soil with good drainage. In lighter and sandy soils, bean cultivation yields earlier but significantly lower yields. Although the bean cultivation is resistant to low temperatures, temperatures of between 10-20 ° C are needed to produce good fruiting and production. So the beans are sown in the southern warmest places from early September to late November, while in the cold and mountainous parts, from early February to late March.
How are Broad beans planted in the soil?
To prepare the soil for planting beans, we make good plowing and grooves for planting rows 40-60 cm apart. Enrichment with manure and compost before planting helps to increase crop productivity. We plant 3-4 seed seeds in each position at the appropriate planting distances of 20-30 cm apart at a depth of 3-5 cm.
Whenever do they need watering and lubrication?
The cultivation of beans does not require much water. Specifically for watering, beans need to be watered more often during spring and early autumn. Broad beans as legume plants have the ability to bind large amounts of nitrogen on their own and do not require significant nitrogen fertilization. The fertilizers of the beans are mainly made with phosphate fertilizer, while the addition of potassium is not very important unless the soil is very poor.
What diseases and insects affect the cultivation of Broad beans?
In conditions of high humidity, dense planting, and poor ventilation, beans are affected by various fungal diseases such as period seed, rust, and botrytis. To deal with them, spray the foliage of plants with ecological copper and brimstone solution. Also, the cultivation of beans is affected by the insects of the black mullet, as well as the beetle loop, a beetle that infects the beans. To treat bean insects we can prevent spraying with a solution of crushed green soap or soap with potassium salts, an ecological preparation that we can obtain from agricultural shops. Also, orchid or wolf is a plant parasite which is the biggest problem in the cultivation of beans as it grows its roots and absorbs nutrients from our plants. To treat wolf in beans, crop rotation should be done, ie rotation of the crop every 3-4 years or placing a small amount of blue-stone (copper sulfate) around the bean seeds during planting. Alternatively, before planting, we can dip the kernels for two hours in a solution of turpentine made by dissolving 1 tablespoon of turmeric soup in one liter of water.
When are Broad beans harvested and how are they stored?
The beans are ready 3-5 months after sowing, depending on the variety of the variety. Harvests are gradually harvested as soon as they are normal in size and are tender without being fully ripened. Note that green beans can be stored in the refrigerator for several days. In contrast, the harvest of nuts is delayed until the pods become black in color, mature and begin to dry. After harvest, we remove the pods and store the seed beans in a dry environment.