8 secrets for growing cherries in your garden
The cherry is one of the most beautiful fruit trees that in summer gives us delicious fruits, the delicious cherries with the red color and the unique taste. Famous for its wonderful flowering with beautiful flowers of light pink to white, the cherry blossom is a symbol of the coming of spring and in Eastern countries is celebrated with many events.
Cherry is a fruit with fanatical fans and rich nutritional value, as it contains high content of vitamins, antioxidants, iron, calcium and magnesium.
Let’s see the most important tips for growing cherries, in order to enjoy delicious cherries and the unique beauty of its flowers in spring.
What conditions is needed for the cultivation of cherries and at what distances is it planted?
The cherry is grown in deep fertile soils that have good drainage. We avoid planting cherries in dry calcareous soils, because they do not show satisfactory growth. The cherry is grown in areas that have enough cold in the winter, an element necessary for the formation of its flowers in the spring.
We choose places that have enough sunshine and good ventilation for the cultivation of cherries and we avoid areas with enough humidity, rainfall or late frosts during the period of flowering and fruiting. When planting cherries, we choose to have two varieties that bloom at the same time to achieve better pollination between them to ensure rich fruiting. Having a bee in a cherry crop helps a lot in pollinating the trees.
Suitable time to plant cherries is in late autumn while for colder areas in late winter – early spring. The planting distances of the cherry vary depending on the subject of the cherry and the shaping system, and are usually at 5-6 meters while there are denser planting systems.
What watering do cherry crops need?
The cherry has several needs for water and it is necessary to install an irrigation system for the cultivation. We start watering the cherries in early spring, as the cherries need large amounts of water during the fruit growing season. Many times the cherry needs to have enough water during the flowering period, as in drought conditions its flowering is not satisfactory. We continue watering the cherry during the summer period and stop in the fall when the first rains begin.
What fertilizer do cherries need?
The cherry is relatively demanding in nutrients to have good growth, rich fruit and quality production. Add complete organic fertilizer, fortified with potassium, to help the formation and ripening of the cherry fruits. Also important is the addition of zinc and boron with foliar fertilizers and spraying the leaves for satisfactory fruit set of trees. Excessive addition of nitrogen can reduce the quality of production by softening the fruits, as well as reducing their shelf life after harvest.
What season and how do we prune the cherries?
In young cherry trees, pruning is done in terms of the shape we give to the cherries, with the most popular being the cup-shaped shape that includes 4-5 arms on a central trunk, the linear system and the palmetta system. Suitable season for the fruiting pruning of the cherry is in the end of winter, in the period of January and February.
During the pruning we aim at maintaining the shape of the tree, ensuring lively vegetation and at the same time preserving the fruiting of the cherry. With the pruning we achieve better ventilation and lighting of the trees to produce quality and delicious cherries. To achieve this, we remove annual or old branches that do not serve us in shape, overlapping branches, dry and diseased branches, as well as thick branches (greedy) that go to the top.
How do we create new cherry plants?
Cherries are propagated by seed and cuttings. If we plant a cherry seed, the seedling that will sprout will have different characteristics from the cherry variety we planted and the tree should be grafted (grafted) with the desired cherry variety. A suitable way to inoculate the cherry is by inoculating it with an upright T and it can be done during the spring period, in the middle of summer and in the beginning of autumn.
We can create new cherry plants using woody cuttings in the winter and leafy cuttings in the spring, which we plant in nursery pots and keep in a bright cool environment, which does not hit the direct rays of the sun, until they take root and grow.
What insects and diseases affect the cherry?
The cherry is susceptible to many insect and disease attacks. For the treatment of fungal diseases that affect cherries such as monilia, anthracnose, hornbeam and bacterial ulcer, we spray with ecological solution of copper and sulfur, after pruning, in the puffiness of the eyes before flowering and after fruiting. To treat various insects that infect cherries, such as meligra, granules, scoliosis, cherry fly, as well as nightshade, we spray with a solution of summer pulp and natural pyrethrin, which are approved preparations for organic farming.
How is the phenomenon of cherry splitting treated?
Rupture of the cherry fruit is a complex phenomenon that can occur due to various factors. Initially, drought and high temperatures in late spring can cause the fruit to split. Also, heavy rainfall before harvest can cause the fruits to tear, as they absorb water abruptly. Lack of phosphorus is another reason that increases the rate of cleft palate. To treat cleft fruit, it is important to choose cleft-resistant cherry varieties and to make foliar sprays with phosphorus and calcium to reduce the appearance of cherry cleft.
And one last secret for growing cherries
When dry thermal conditions and high temperatures prevail during the summer period, the phenomenon of double fruits can appear in a significant percentage of production. The phenomenon of double fruits causes a decline in production as double or twin fruits are not marketable.